Why is ventilation in a private house necessary?
Let's start with the fact that the process and the air exchange system are inextricably linked with the structure of the building.
What kind of structure did residential buildings have before? In a word, leaky. Wooden windows, gaps in the doors, poor insulation – these signs are typical of old buildings that have come down to us in more or less their original state.
In such houses, there is infiltration – when a certain amount of air enters the room, is inhaled by those who are there, and then the exhaled carbon dioxide is released outside through the ventilation ducts.
Vertical ventilation ducts are located in the bathrooms, dressing rooms and bathrooms. We can safely call them an absolute evil, since it is through them that a large amount of heat is simply disposed into outdoors.
Construction technologies have developed rapidly and now the constructs are overhauled. Leaky buildings have disappeared: good heat-insulating materials have appeared, metal-plastic or aluminum windows reliably keep heat. Our house has become like a thermos.
The energy efficiency of such buildings is very high, but it is associated not only with materials. The thickness of the wall, the brand of heat insulator or the insulated roof are just the base, but the thoughtfulness and quality of engineering help not to lose the potential of the thermos house.
If the house does not have good ventilation, then we open an expensive double-glazed window and get an uncontrolled amount of air of dubious quality, with smells, dust, and noise. The flow is mixed with carbon dioxide in the room – such air exchange will not be complete.
During periods when it is hot or cold outside (that is, at least 7-8 months a year in our climate zone), we get another problem of an open window: hot or frosty air. This air mass will have to be cooled or heated, increasing the load on the air conditioners and heating system.
At this stage, the conclusion is obvious: if you care about the comfort and health of your family, do not let this issue take its course. Ventilation in a private house is closely related to cooling and heating, the system must be correctly calculated. It is engineering solutions that make housing modern and comfortable.
Correct cottage ventilation scheme
The basic principle is the division of the entire space into “clean” and “dirty” zones.
“Clean” includes living areas - living rooms, bedrooms, offices, guest rooms, children's rooms and others, where a person stays most of the time. The “dirty” zone is toilets, wardrobes, bathrooms, a kitchen or, locally, a frying surface (hob). It should be noted that in most houses the layout is created according to the principle of open space (open type), and it has a kitchen-living room. In this spacious room, two elements appear, and, accordingly, two calculations: a “clean” zone on a larger area, combined with a “dirty” zone next to the hob, where the stove and kitchen hood are located.
An important rule when organizing ventilation in a private house: supply to the “clean” zone and intake from the “dirty” one. A clean stream of air passes through the living space and squeezes out carbon dioxide in a displacing way. Later this carbon dioxide goes to the toilets, wardrobes, and a bathroom, a frying surface, from where it is extracted to the outdoors.
Let's talk about how to arrange this process effectively.
Immediately, we note that any ventilation system has the right to exist. When choosing, we recommend that homeowners rely on three factors: efficiency / inefficiency, pricing policy, comfort zone for a person.
Natural ventilation of the house is still common in households of different sizes. With such a system, ventilation ducts are built in bathrooms, wardrobes, and kitchens. These ventilation ducts that open onto the roof are by no means a free pleasure, besides, your money will literally “fly out” into them - with warm or cold air.
We have already mentioned that natural ventilation in a private house used to be implemented with the help of infiltration. In modern houses, infiltration is equal to zero, and the only way to achieve it is to open a window, providing mechanical airflow. A balanced natural air exchange in this situation is impossible: the amount of incoming air will not be equal to the volume of outgoing air.
According to the standards, the extraction of the exhaust air must be carried out through system without thresholds – so there is a gap between the floor and the edge of the door. The flow passes through this hole into the corridor, goes to the bathroom in a displacing way, goes into the ventilation duct and is discharged to the roof. We have achieved air exchange - only it is quite obvious that it is unproductive.
The forced ventilation system of the house can be organized in various ways, but air is always supplied to the “clean” zone and taken from the “dirty” one.
The budget method is a supply valve. This will cost more than an open window, but cheaper than other options.
The supply valve is installed as follows: a pipe is mounted into the wall that allows air to pass through.
This method has a low level of comfort - cold air enters the rooms and creates discomfort for residents. In Ukraine, users often thoughtlessly install supply valves. Then just as quickly get rid of them.
This technology was developed by SystemAir for the Spanish market, which implies a wholly different climate. In winter, it is +20 in this region, and therefore, it is hard to expect it to be effective for our winter weather with persistent frosts and prolonged anticyclones.
Breathers will provide better ventilation in the house. These supply machines purify and heat the air with a heating element, supply it to a “clean” area, for example, to a bedroom. It can operate at one of three speeds, or by a CO2 sensor - the unit itself chooses which mode is suitable.
Breathers successfully cope with air purification – they are equipped with carbon filters and HEPA filters.
In combination with supply ventilation, exhaust fans with timers or two-speed ones are used (we will talk about them in more detail in the next section) to ensure full air exchange. Fans are installed in "dirty" areas, but you can also install them directly in the living area.
Exhaust ventilation in the house is a mandatory element for the ventilation system, even if you use an open window for the inflow.
Axial or centrifugal fans are used for exhaust.
Centrifugal ones consist of two parts: the case and the fan itself. You can install various equipment in the case – a fan with a timer, a photocell, and so on; for all types, different wiring of electrical circuits is required.
The second classic type is axial, such fans are installed directly on the air duct. There are several subtypes for them: “standard”, with a timer, with a humidity sensor, with a photocell.
Let's take a closer look at these main types.
The standard fans have a switch and operate in on/off mode. It is the simplest option. You will have to decide for yourself when you need to exhaust air, and when it is already “enough”.
The fan with a timer does not require direct control from you: it turns on simultaneously with the light and turns off after a programmed time, after you have left the room. Such an algorithm is logical: for example, after using the bathroom, there will still be moisture and heat that must be removed.
A fan with a humidity sensor and a timer is an improved version of the previous one. There is not always enough time on the timer to remove humid air. The sensor detects the level of humidity and regulates the operation of the exhaust unit in accordance with the specified parameters.
An intermittent fan is used in wardrobes. In the premises where outerwear and shoes are stored, it is necessary to ensure the supply of fresh air 24 hours a day. Such a fan turns on at intervals, say, in the 2 hours of idle time / 10 minutes of operation.
Two-speed fans run at the lowest speed, such as 30cc. When the light is turned on, they switch to enhanced mode - 60 or 100 cubic meters.
Fans with photocells detect movement and turn on when a person enters the room. When you leave the room, it will work on a timer and turn itself off.
Supply and exhaust ventilation for small spaces - several options for installation and control
Premium household air handling units include a central heat recovery system with Jablotron VAV valves.
It's "heart" is a a variable air flow valve. Working constantly at minimum speed, Jablotron demonstrates high efficiency.
Let's look at this in a particular situation.
A person cannot be in the living room and bedroom at the same time, so there is no need to constantly supply air to all rooms. Each valve has programmatically assigned CO2 sensor, which is located in “clean” zones - that is, places where people are permanently located.
Let's imagine that in zone 1 there are people. If there are few of them, and the carbon dioxide curve rises slightly, the system will take into account the sensor readings and will not supply additional air. If system calculations predict that there is not enough clean air, the valve will close in zones 2, 3, 4, and clean air will be supplied only to zone 1.
When a person enters other zones, the sensor detects an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide. If there is enough air supplied to maintain CO2, the unit operates in the same mode; if not, it opens the VAV valve and increases the speed.
Other benefits of Jablotron include:
A few words about the Boost button. When you turn on the light, the system understands that it needs to activate in order to dispose of moisture or odor. It will close the adjacent rooms, and will begin to take air out of the room as much as possible. The valve has a software limitation and can pass a maximum of 100 cubic meters. That is, if 120 cubic meters have been accumulated, it will let through the zone where we activated the Boost buttons, 100 cubes, and distribute the remaining 20 evenly among neighboring rooms.
We will also analyze separately the unique technology that Jablotron developed together with Faber — a kitchen hood without an engine (the role of the engine is performed by the Jablotron unit itself). When the Faber kitchen hood is activated, the system ignores the CO2 value, increasing the power to the maximum. Four air ducts with a diameter of 90 mm are connected to the hood, 100 cubic meters of exhaust air are taken with each of them. At this time, the necessary amount of fresh air is supplied to the “clean” zones. Air exchange remains in balance, while odor molecules are guaranteed not to get into “clean” zones.
Note that a powerful kitchen hood from another manufacturer (even the most expensive one) can disrupt air exchange - taking, for example, 600 cubic meters that a standard unit cannot compensate for. The consequences are obvious - not only do we throw heat out into the street, but also an imbalance in the supply and output of air is detected.
Therefore, Alter Air advises implementing the technologically correct approach of the Jablotron + Faber brands.
The implementation of the ventilation system is impossible without high-quality and productive equipment. In the process of working on the objects, Alter Air selected only the best equipment. In addition, we offer “smart” ventilation units with the possibility of variable air supply – Jablotron.
Anyway, we will select the equipment that fully meets your requirements and budget.
As it has been repeatedly mentioned, when designing ventilation, it is important to adhere to the division into “clean” and “dirty” zones. All ventilation equipment is selected depending on the chosen option.
Where do you cook - in the kitchen-living room or in a separate kitchen area? Depending on the answer to this question, exhaust ventilation is installed for houses of different layouts. In the first case, the project includes the division of space into “clean” and “dirty” zones; in the second, the entire room is considered a “dirty” area.
When cooking, odors, smoke, gases, moisture, and heat are emitted. In no other room is such an amount of polluted air emitted with such frequency (except perhaps with a bathroom). The main task is to remove this air from the room, and this requires a powerful kitchen hood.
Kitchen ventilation can be implemented according to two scenarios. The first is a duct system arranged according to the scheme: a check valve, an air duct and in-line duct fan. Alter Air offers duct equipment from Systemair (Sweden), Soler&Palau (Spain), Ostberg (Sweden), Ruck (Germany), Salda (Lithuania).
Another option is to install a classic axial or centrifugal fan. Exhaust fans Meltem (Germany), Maico (Germany), Vortice (Italy), Soler&Palau (Spain), Systemair (Sweden), Lessar (Lithuania) perfectly cope with the task.
And, finally, the most effective option for the kitchen is the central supply and exhaust ventilation with Jablotron recuperation and variable air flow valves. The kitchen hood without the engine, developed by Jablotron and Faber, not only effectively removes dirty air from the kitchen, but also creates a balanced air exchange.
An exhaust fan is a mandatory piece of equipment for the bathroom and toilet, regardless of the ventilation system you prefer.
We discussed the types of fans above; for the bathroom, it is preferable to install models with a timer and a humidity sensor. Among the brands that our company is ready to recommend are Meltem (Germany), Olimpia Splendid (Italy), Maico (Germany), Soler&Palau (Spain), ELECTROLUX (Sweden), Elicent (Italy), Вентс (Ukraine).
Outerwear, fur, leather, synthetic and natural fabrics are a source of odors. To create normal storage conditions in the dressing rooms, fans of periodic switching on, two-speed or standard, are installed. These can be Meltem (Germany), Olimpia Splendid (Italy), Aerauliqa (Italy), Elicent (Italy), ELECTROLUX (Sweden), Vents (Ukraine), MAICO (Germany), S&P (Spain), Helios (Germany), Vortice (Italy).
All living areas are a clean zone. In the living room, bedrooms, nursery, study and other spaces with similar functions, a person spends most of the time. It is important to supply fresh air at a comfortable temperature here with the help of supply equipment — breathers (Ballu, Airnanny, Tion), supply valves (Marley, Systemair, Maico), recuperators (Meltem, Olimpia Splendid, Airauliqa, Marley, Blauberg), air handling units (Jablotron Futura, Zehnder, Stiebel Eltron).
A separate ventilation is always created in the garage, and only exhaust.
The design of the garage, unlike a residential building, is leaky because the garage doors have gaps. The temperature here is artificially maintained at +8°C.
When you enter the garage, you turn on the light. At the same time, the fan should turn on, taking the gases that are emitted by the running car. A duct exhaust ventilation system is being created according to the following scheme: a front grille, an adapter, an air duct, a check valve, an exhaust fan, an air duct that is connected to the grilles, which will extract gases.
After leaving the car, the timer continues to run for 30-40 minutes.
Even if the car is in the room and is not used, it produces odors. Therefore, it is important to provide an intermittent exhaust system that regularly removes polluted air.
As for the inflow, fresh air is mixed in due to the leakage of the gate.
Underground facilities continue to appear in modern households. Of course, we're not talking about the cellar where Granny keeps her 35 jars of raspberry jam. In spaces of this type, ventilation is carried out in a displacement way: the air flow enters the lower point, the supply is carried out near the floor, and the top layer of air is extracted.
Basement ventilation, where utility rooms, pantries, billiard rooms, etc., can be located, is based on the fact that the basement is a “dirty” area. It is important to avoid stagnation of air. For this, a centrifugal or axial fan, two-speed or with periodic switching on, is installed. Such constant ventilation of the house is carried out similar to the ventilation in a dressing rooms.
The air supply is provided by any chosen option - a window, a breather, a decentralized ventilation system.
With central ventilation with recuperation, the supply is carried out to the “clean” zone, and the air intake is carried out in the basement. Even at low room temperatures, the air here also has energy that can be returned.
If a central unit with a VAV system is installed in the house, there should be a separate valve in the basement.
In our calculations, we rely on the example of a detached house of 100 square meters with a standard layout that includes two bedrooms, a living room, two bathrooms and one wardrobe.
The cost is provided approximately, in more detail it is calculated considering the exact area, the chosen concept, materials, and equipment. Prices are valid for May 2022.
Alter Air is interested in your ventilation in a private house working for a long time and efficiently.
During the design and installation of the ventilation system, work is coordinated with all specialist contractors
We create a comfortable climate in it with the understanding that all engineering systems are closely interconnected.
The client receives honest estimates, in future the estimates are not inflated, and the work goes according to the plan
The ventilation system, in fact, is responsible for the supply of fresh air and the intake of exhaust air for a comfortable stay of people in the room. That is, the ventilation system at home is not considered a full-fledged source of air cooling, but is responsible for its quality and quantity. To cool the room during the hot season, it is necessary to install a separate air conditioning system.
The Jablotron Futura L ventilation unit with heat and moisture recovery ensures high-quality air exchange at the apartment, and also reduces the load on the heating system in the cold season. Thanks to the Alfa wall controller and the MyJablotron mobile app it is easy to operate the unit.
Flexible air ducts Airflex have a high degree of plasticity, which allows air to be supplied even to hard-to-reach areas. Moreover, they are covered with a layer of thermal insulation, which prevents heat loss and absorbs noise characteristics during the operation of the ventilation unit.
The Daikin duct air conditioner provides efficient room cooling. The FBA series has a rather thin body, which makes it easy to place in a ceiling space. The self-diagnosis function ensures a safe operation of the device and indicates problems if any occur.
Double-slot diffusers from the TROX brand are designed for high-quality air distribution throughout the room. They combine visual aesthetics and high technical potential. Air currents are given in different directions, evenly scattering and avoiding any drafts. Outwardly, only laconic lines on the ceiling remain visible.
A low-pressure internal duct unit Daikin FDXM 35F is installed in the ceiling space of the bathroom - it works to cool the bedroom. It is accessed through hatches. The capacity of the air conditioner is enough to service rooms up to 35 m2, which is optimal for a given room. The lowering of the ceiling in a technical room was 300 mm.
Vertical indirect heating boiler Drazice OKSE 200 l is designed to provide apartment residents with hot water. The inner surface of the tank is covered with high-quality enamel without nickel, which ensures a long operation of the water heater, and there is also an anti-corrosion coating. The temperature inside can be kept between 7 and 77 ℃. The water heating indicator always shows the current temperature on the front of the tank. There is a fast heating function. This is an excellent solution for an apartment, allowing you not to depend on seasonal blackouts and other inconveniences.
Electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock An electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock with a capacity of 6 kW and efficiency of up to 99% works for heating and hot water supply of the entire apartment. It has a wide range of temperature settings for both heating and hot water supply. There are frost protection and 2-level overheating protection. Equipped with eBus data transmission technology. With the help of a capillary thermostat, residents can smoothly regulate the heating temperature in the range from 25 to 85 ℃
The Zilmet expansion tank is designed to compensate extra pressure in the heating system. Works in conjunction with the Vaillant electric boiler above. The special inner lining of the tank prevents the growth of any bacteria, that is, the water does not acquire a metallic taste, does not stagnate or change its properties.
A modern system for filtering and softening water: cleans water from all kinds of impurities and odors, neutralizes iron, making it soft, pleasant and safe for household appliances, water pipes and human use. The purified water is also suitable for drinking directly from the tap. The refiner does not require changing the carbon filters, and is controlled via WiFi - maximum automation and comfort!
To determine the optimal concept of ventilation in a private house the client provides information about the wishes, budget. It is important to deal with the constructs of the house, to operate within the initial data on the project. At the first meeting - in the office or online - in 1-1.5 hours, options, cost, advantages and disadvantages of the systems are discussed with our team. You will make the final decision, having a complete understanding of the chosen option.
Our experts prepare the necessary documents for the selected ventilation system, calculations for the amount of air. On their basis, the standard size of the equipment is selected and the commercial offer is finalized in various budgets - economy, medium, premium. It is possible to change the final cost after the drafting, but it will not exceed 15%. At this stage, the client clearly understands the concept, the equipment necessary for the project and the amount of the budget.
Designing begins when the client has decided on an option within the budget. An advance payment of 10% of the declared amount is made and the design process begins, during which we communicate with the client and related specialists (designers, architects, foremen). Ventilation design is based on two principles - based on the calculation of the number of residents and based on the calculation of air quality indicators (CO2). After making changes, the project is approved. Engineers provide a complete package of documents that allows you to implement the project in any company - not only in ours. The client receives detailed information (the purpose of each duct, throttle or valve) and forms a clear view of the functionality and efficiency of the system.
We take care of delivery and installation. Installation is carried out by our own teams. Specialists are trained and certified for each type of ventilation equipment, so they guarantee quality. An obligatory intermediate stage is commissioning. Setting and testing are carried out in order to ensure the correct implementation and effectiveness of the system. The final launch of the ventilation system is carried out in the presence of the client and the chief engineer.
Alter Air also provides warranty and post-warranty maintenance of the ventilation system. The equipment that we install often does not even require our presence - analysis, configuration and service can be done online, which speeds up these processes. In the event of a malfunction, the service engineer will offer the best package of services and send a team on a convenient day for the client. We can analyze the system and offer optimization options - also remotely. Spare parts or consumables (for example, replacement filters for the ventilation unit) can be ordered from us.
The main thing to remember is that the space is divided into “clean” (living room, bedrooms, study, nursery) and “dirty” (bathrooms, kitchen, dressing room) zones; fresh air is supplied to the “clean” zone, exhaust air is taken from the “dirty” zone.
The desire to independently calculate the ventilation is commendable, but it will take you several weeks, or maybe months of your life (depending on general preparation). The fact is that regulatory documents not only take up entire “tomes”, but also contain many nuances that only engineers know. If you are not ready to delve into the material so deeply, contact the experts, this is a reasonable and balanced decision.
In the section on the cost of ventilation, we provided prices including installation. You can find out more detailed information from our managers by phone 0 800 335 941.
The frequency of cleaning the ventilation system depends on the mode of operation and is carried out once a year or once every six months.
There are such possibilities, here is one of them.
Often in a house under construction, people lay ventilation ducts in the bathrooms - we have already talked about their dangers. 1 meter of the channel costs at least 1000 UAH. There are at least four such ventilation ducts, each 6 meters high. In total, you risk spending 24,000 UAH on ventilation ducts.
However, there is an alternative - a decentralized system with heat recovery and ducting. You will save 24,000 UAH, increase the efficiency of the building, as you will use the energy that you planned to throw away.
One of the mistakes concerns an already installed system.
It is made by engineers: they choose the wrong diameters of air ducts and diffusers from which air comes out. They make too small a section and reduce the area of air ducts.
As a result, the cost of ducting is reduced and the system as a whole also becomes cheaper. Inexperienced customers like this solution and they are willing to buy it. In living rooms, people sew up air ducts with ceilings, furnish the room with expensive furniture and hang lamps - but the ventilation system turns out to be so noisy that it is difficult to stay indoors.
You can't skimp on aerodynamics. You do not save on other laws of physics, say, do not check the work of gravity by jumping from the third floor?
It is not easy to fix the described mistake - it is even easier to change the unit, but getting a long ventilation duct is an order of magnitude more difficult.
Have questions? Do you need ventilation for a house in Kyiv, in the regional center or outside the city? Call 0 800 335 941 or leave a request on our website.
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