Home heating is an important component for a comfortable living. Everyone thinks about what type of heating system is more rational to apply for their home.
Accordingly, there are many options for implementing heating for the home, ranging from heaters, various types of boilers, to modern systems such as heat pumps.
First of all, when it comes to modern heating in the house, you need to pay attention to the energy efficiency of the house. Since, when choosing a particular heat source, the following points must be considered:
1. correctly selected heat-insulating materials;
2. the availability of high-quality double-glazed windows. When choosing, you need to consider 2 characteristics:
R is the thermal resistance of the double-glazed window and profile;
G (Solar Factor), which determines the permeability of radiation that has passed through the double-glazed window.
3. the availability of a ventilation system with recuperation;
4. the absence of ventilation ducts, which create an additional load on the heating system.
The building structure is the constant on which the energy efficiency of the building is based. Thus, with a competent approach to the building structure (all enclosing structures: walls, ceilings, partitions, foundations, roofs, windows that are selected in accordance with thermal protection standards), you will receive minimal energy consumption costs.
Therefore, first of all, specialists make a thermotechnical calculation, which takes into account all enclosing structures. Based on this, when the thermotechnical calculation showed that the structures correspond to one or another parameter regarding thermal protection, the house will have minimal heat loss, this will reduce heating costs.
Today, in modern energy-efficient houses, a ventilation system with recuperation is installed, and thanks to this, the process of infiltration (natural air supply through windows) will be impossible.
Since, ventilation is an important engineering system that affects the energy efficiency of a building, we will consider several types of systems:
Open windows + air intake by exhaust fans in bathrooms;
A supply valve that works to supply air in "clean areas" (bedroom, children's room, etc.) + exhaust air intake by exhaust fans in "dirty areas" (bathrooms, dressing rooms, etc.);
VAV-system with CO2 control by zone.
Therefore, the availability of ventilation will enable residents to spend less energy on maintaining the house, since there will be no supply of uncontrolled cold / warm air that can load the heating or cooling system depending on the season.
Types of home heating:
Solid fuel boiler.
A solid fuel boiler is a device that works to heat a private house, and also provides residents with hot water, releasing thermal energy by burning solid fuels (wood, coal, pellets, briquettes).
The principle of operation of the boiler:
First of all, it is necessary to fire up the boiler so that it warms up to +60°C in order to avoid condensation. In the case when the temperature is lower than necessary, condensate appears, which corrodes the metal of the heat exchanger.
Then, when the temperature rises above +60°C, the device passes water into the buffer tank, thanks to a triple valve.
From the buffer tank, water is transported to the underfloor heating system, radiators and in-floor convectors, as well as to DHW (hot water supply).
There are 2 types of solid fuel boilers:
Classic boiler. The principle of operation of the boiler is based on the loading of solid fuel into the chamber where the products are burned. At the same time, the raw material gives off thermal energy to the heat exchanger, which, in turn, transfers it to the heat carrier.
Pyrolysis boiler. The operation of the boiler is based on obtaining thermal energy by burning raw materials, as well as pyrolysis gases that appear during the combustion of fuel. When gases are burned, additional energy is released, which is also used in the system. Thus, the heat that is released during the burning of fuel and gases passes through the heat exchanger, heating the heat carrier.
A mandatory requirement for the implementation of a system with a solid fuel boiler is the installation of an uninterruptible power supply.
Since it is impossible to stop the combustion of fuel, and when the electricity is turned off, the boiler will start to overheat, as a result of which the boiler and the building may ignite.
Heating a house based on a solid fuel boiler is considered independent, since it does not require gas supply to the house, and electricity consumption is quite low.
However, it is important to note that the disadvantages of the boiler are much greater than the advantages:
unsafe home heating system. Because of unqualified installation of the system, a building fire may occur;
It is important for the efficient operation of the system to use dense wood in order to obtain the highest heat transfer. In the case when the heat transfer of wood is low, it is necessary to put more fuel into the boiler, which is an economically unprofitable option;
the necessity to have a separate warehouse for raw materials in order to avoid the appearance of moisture in the fuel, which in turn will reduce the level of fuel heat transfer;
the cost of solid fuel for heating for a private house is an expensive solution compared to gas and electricity;
a large boiler room, since an important element of the system is a buffer tank, which needs to be provided with 40 liters of water per 1 kW of fuel.
Electric boiler is equipment that can perform 2 functions:
heating the air in the room to optimal level;
hot water heating in the DHW tank.
The switching of these functions occurs thanks to a triple valve - a device which purpose is to divide the main stream into 2 secondary ones.
There is a coil in the barrel, with the help of which the water is heated. Thus, the coil heats the water and opens the triple valve to transport hot water to heat the DHW tank. In the case when the temperature of the water in the hot water tank reaches the desired level, the three-way valve closes and energy is transported to underfloor heating and radiators.
An important feature of the device is the presence of weather-dependent automation, which will allow you to maintain comfortable microclimate parameters, while rationally using energy resources. The principle of operation is to measure the temperature of the outdoor air using a sensor, as well as transmit data to the program. In turn, automation increases or reduces the heating of water in the electric boiler.
To achieve the maximum level of efficiency and comfort, it is necessary to provide for the implementation of a system of underfloor heating. As we said before, underfloor heating
is a low-temperature element of the heating system, therefore it is important that the floor surface temperature is + 24-26 ° C (comfortable temperature for a person's foot). Thanks to the pump groups, a higher temperature of the heat carrier will be supplied to the radiators, a lower one - to the underfloor heating system.
A home heating system using an electric boiler is a rational solution when there is no gas supply to the house on the site.
At the same time, heating a private house based on an electric boiler has disadvantages:
the power input of electricity into the house must correspond to the energy, according to heat calculations. Therefore, when performing a thermotechnical calculation, you need to pay attention to the consumed electricity to avoid constantly turning off electrical appliances;
low efficiency (coefficient of performance). When converting 1 kW of electricity, the boiler will be able to give 0.9 kW of heat;
when the electricity is turned off, the system stops working;
unstable mains voltage, which does not allow the system to fully generate the necessary amount of energy for the efficient operation of the heating system.
Gas boiler is equipment that provides thermal energy for heating a private house and heating water, by burning gaseous fuel.
Alter Air company provides the implementation of the heating system of the house, using high-tech equipment, such as a gas condensing boiler. At the same time, it should be taken into account that the heating system must be implemented for a low-temperature regime (the availability of underfloor heating system around the entire perimeter of the building, the calculation of the temperature of heat carrier supply to radiators and in-floor convectors is not higher than + 50 ° C, and the return is + 35 ° C). Thus, the lower the water supply temperature, the more efficient the operation of the boiler.
The principle of operation of a condensing boiler is based on the condensation process:
At the first stage, burning of gaseous fuel occurs in the chamber. This produces water and carbon dioxide.
After that, the water begins to evaporate, respectively, the liquid releases heat. Thus, condensation occurs.
In turn, the condensate is stored in the system, which subsequently allows it to be used as an additional source of energy.
Based on this, due to the condensation process, an additional amount of energy is released, which makes the efficiency factor (coefficient of performance) of the boiler above 100%.
The disadvantage of the condensing boiler is the uncontrolled gas pricing policy in Ukraine, due to the war in Ukraine (Russian attack on Ukraine, which began on February 24, 2022).
Heat pump is an efficient and cost-effective device, since the unit can perform 3 functions:
hot water supply (DHW).
The heat pump system is a low temperature system, so for its efficient operation, the following must be provided:
installation of an underfloor heating system throughout the entire area of the house;
installation of auxiliary units: radiators, fan coil units, in-floor convectors.
In addition, an important indicator of a heat pump is COP - the coefficient of conversion of electrical energy into heat.
Accordingly, the higher the COP, the faster the heating system will pay back the invested capital and the heat pump will be more economical.
Heating options based on a heat pump:
1. Air-to-air heat pump. The device is not a common source of heat in Kyiv and other cities of Ukraine.
The unit resembles a classic wall-mounted air conditioner, but it is able to operate at -20°C. The device has a number of disadvantages:
2. Air-to-water heat pump is the most common source of energy, the heat carrier of which is water. The unit is used in buildings where area does not exceed 200 m2, and the building must also have a high level of energy efficiency.
An air-to-water heat pump is an efficient device, as it is able to convert 1 kW of electrical energy into 3 kW of heat. In turn, over time, you will significantly reduce your electricity costs.
In order for the heating system with an air-to-water heat pump to work effectively, it is necessary to install an underfloor heating system over the entire floor area.
As we said earlier, an underfloor heating is an important element of the system, the temperature of which should not exceed +26°C. If the floor surface temperature rises above +26°C, the residents will not be comfortable on the floor, as it will be too hot for a person's foot.
Underfloor heating is an inert system. Thus, when the outdoor temperature drops, the floor surface temperature will increase, respectively, when the outdoor temperature rises sharply, the concrete will be heated and will cool for a long time, which will create discomfort for residents.
Therefore, in order to prevent the discomfort for residents, it is necessary to install additional units:
fan coil is a source of heat and cold. Most often, floor-type fan coil units are used, since they are arranged along double-glazed windows in order to avoid cold / heat entering the house. When selecting devices, you need to pay attention to its noise characteristics, since with the wrong choice of the size and power of the unit, noise will appear that will create discomfort for a person.
Ducted fan coil units are able to create the maximum level of comfort in the room. In most cases, this type of device is installed in the living room or in the kitchen-living room, since it is an expensive solution to implement a duct system in all rooms. In addition, you can install wall-mounted fan coil units that are able to create the desired temperature in the rooms, while installation and maintenance of the units is much easier and faster than other types.
radiator - equipment that works for house heating;
in-floor convector, that works for heating, but when installing Kampmann HK, you can get the function of cooling and heating.
The optimal recommended operating temperature for the heat pump is -7°C.
When the temperature is below -7°C and the heat pump is not enough for appropriate operation, it is necessary to install an additional heat source in the form of a gas or electric boiler.
3. Geothermal heat pump is equipment that is capable of performing the functions of heating, cooling and hot water supply. It uses the heat of the earth, the temperature of which is approximately +12°C. Therefore, the unit is more stable than air source heat pumps. Heating of a private house, using a geothermal installation, is implemented in houses whose area is more than 200 m2.
The main advantage of a heat pump is its high COP. Thus, using 1 kW of electricity, the heat pump is able to deliver up to 6 kW of thermal energy. Therefore, as with an air-to-water heat pump, in order to achieve maximum efficiency of the device, it is necessary to install an underfloor heating system over the entire floor area, as well as auxiliary devices: radiators, fan coil units and in-floor convectors.
In addition, the geothermal heat pump has a drawback, the essence of which lies in the cost of the project. Since, it is necessary to carry out earthworks and use submersible probes.
A solar battery is a device that can convert the sun's energy into electrical energy.
A solar collector is a device which main task is to obtain the thermal energy of the sun, carried by infrared radiation.
The devices work effectively for hot water supply during the sunny period, which lasts from March to October. Accordingly, solar collectors and solar panels can reduce the cost of hot water supply, the use of electricity, gas or solid fuel.
In the case when you have house heating based on a heat pump, the use of solar panels and solar collectors is an irrational solution. Since, a heat pump is an efficient device that gives off high-potential energy in the form of heating, cooling and hot water and is an efficient device all year round, unlike solar panels and solar collectors.
Combined heating is a combination of two heat sources, such as main and auxiliary, they work for the heating system in winter.
The following device combinations for a mixed system can be considered:
Heat pump and gas boiler.
Heat pump and electric boiler.
Solid fuel boiler and electric boiler.
Solid fuel boiler and gas boiler.
Water heating is a building heating system and performs the function of heating hot water, where liquid acts as a heat carrier, and the heat source can be either an electric boiler, a gas boiler, a solid fuel boiler, or a heat pump (“air-to-water”, geothermal).
Advantages of water heating:
uniform distribution of warm air when using a system of underfloor heating, radiators, fan coil units, in-floor convectors.
silent operation of the system, unlike air heating;
thanks to the underfloor heating system, the air layer in the lower part of the room will warm up, which will not create discomfort for the human foot.
Air heating is a system where air is used as a heat carrier.
The advantage of air heating is that air is used as a heat carrier, which will not create a leak in case of pipe damage.
Disadvantages of air heating:
Low inertia. After the heat source stops working, the room cools down quickly;
Since hot air always rises, supplying warm air from above will cause layers of warm air to form at the top of the building. Accordingly, the air from below the room will not warm up well;
To heat the room effectively, a large amount of air must be supplied. Thus, for this, it is necessary to install air ducts with a large cross-section, which leads to an increase in the ceiling drop.
The cost of implementing the system will increase, as more energy must be used to heat the entire space.
There are two types of heating layout:
1. Dead-end system is a two-pipe system, where the heat carrier is supplied to each radiator through one pipe, and the return heat carrier moves to the heat source through the second pipe.
2. Beam system is a system where the connection to each radiator is carried out with the help of heat distribution manifold.
We prefer the beam system because it works better in terms of hydraulics and can be adjusted by zone. Since, on each pipe branch there is a servo drive, which is controlled by a sensor.
For a dead-end system, a thermostat is used, which is installed on the radiator, respectively, the residents must independently regulate the temperature on the radiator, and this is inconvenient.
Alter Air recommends using cross-linked polyethylene as pipes. Since pipes made of this material have the following advantages:
reliable. When exposed to high temperatures, the pipe does not lose its shape;
durable. Cross-linked polyethylene pipes have a long service life of at least 50 years;
flexible. During the pipe joining process, the pipe becomes more elastic;
Polypropylene pipes are not recommended for use in the heating system, since pipes may narrow during the soldering process. Accordingly, when the pipes are narrowed, additional local resistances are created in the system, and also, over time, water leakage at the soldering site is possible.
When using metal-plastic pipes, it must be taken into consideration that as the temperature rises, the pipe tends to expand. Thus, over time, water leakage is possible.
In addition, properly selected radiators for your home affect the efficiency of the heating system.
To date, there are several types of radiators:
Each type is selected individually for the project, according to the selected heating system. When choosing a radiator, you need to pay attention to several points:
coating, to avoid oxidation and release of chemicals to the water.
The cost of installing heating in a private house depends on various factors:
selected heat source: a heat pump, an electric boiler, a gas boiler or a solid fuel boiler;
number and types of auxiliary devices: fan coil units, radiators, in-floor convectors;
complexity of installation. The cost of installing heating system in the house depends on the area of the building.
At the same time, prices for the heat source, additional units, as well as the cost of pipes and valves have a great influence on the final prices.
Below are examples of prices, roughly calculated for a house with an area of 100 m2.
from 10 to 14 K euros
from 14 tо 18 K euros
from 20 tо 28 K euros
Кондиционеры Daikin FBA 60 – мощные сплит-системы канального типа, предназначенные для скрытого монтажа практически любого помещения.
Highly efficient air handling unit for general ventilation in houses and apartments. Reuses the heat and moisture that are present in the room. Has a "native" VAV-system (variable air supply).
Double-slot diffusers from the TROX brand are designed for high-quality air distribution throughout the room. They combine visual aesthetics and high technical potential. Air currents are given in different directions, evenly scattering and avoiding any drafts. Outwardly, only laconic lines on the ceiling remain visible.
A low-pressure internal duct unit Daikin FDXM 35F is installed in the ceiling space of the bathroom - it works to cool the bedroom. It is accessed through hatches. The capacity of the air conditioner is enough to service rooms up to 35 m2, which is optimal for a given room. The lowering of the ceiling in a technical room was 300 mm.
Vertical indirect heating boiler Drazice OKSE 200 l is designed to provide apartment residents with hot water. The inner surface of the tank is covered with high-quality enamel without nickel, which ensures a long operation of the water heater, and there is also an anti-corrosion coating. The temperature inside can be kept between 7 and 77 ℃. The water heating indicator always shows the current temperature on the front of the tank. There is a fast heating function. This is an excellent solution for an apartment, allowing you not to depend on seasonal blackouts and other inconveniences.
Electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock An electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock with a capacity of 6 kW and efficiency of up to 99% works for heating and hot water supply of the entire apartment. It has a wide range of temperature settings for both heating and hot water supply. There are frost protection and 2-level overheating protection. Equipped with eBus data transmission technology. With the help of a capillary thermostat, residents can smoothly regulate the heating temperature in the range from 25 to 85 ℃
The Zilmet expansion tank is designed to compensate extra pressure in the heating system. Works in conjunction with the Vaillant electric boiler above. The special inner lining of the tank prevents the growth of any bacteria, that is, the water does not acquire a metallic taste, does not stagnate or change its properties.
A modern system for filtering and softening water: cleans water from all kinds of impurities and odors, neutralizes iron, making it soft, pleasant and safe for household appliances, water pipes and human use. The purified water is also suitable for drinking directly from the tap. The refiner does not require changing the carbon filters, and is controlled via WiFi - maximum automation and comfort!
First of all, we invite our clients to the office, where Alter Air specialists offer different options for the implementation of the project, taking into account the wishes and budget of the client. After that, the customer chooses the appropriate version of the climate system for his home.
Specialists offer different types of equipment that are suitable for different heating systems, and also differ in functionality, technical characteristics, and cost.
At this stage, specialists begin designing the system, as well as developing drawings, diagrams, and performing calculations. At the final stage of the stage, tasks are provided for "contractors" (architects, electricians, plumbers, etc.).
The installation of heating in a private house is carried out by highly qualified specialists, taking into account all the norms and requirements of the system in order to avoid low efficiency of the system and equipment.
Before commissioning, experts check the safety of the system. Then, the system and equipment are configured, taking into account the previously adopted project.
In order for the system to work efficiently and prevent the occurrence of failures in the system, we carry out after-sales service.
Today, a heating system without gas is a profitable solution, since the price of gas is not stable.
First of all, before you implement heating in a private house, you need to perform a thermotechnical calculation in order to understand what energy efficiency indicator of your house is. After that, you need to consider whether there is a gas supply to the site and how large the supply of kW of electricity to the house is.
In the case when the house has a high energy efficiency class and the supply of kW of energy is standard, then the best solution would be to install a heat pump.
The cost of the heating system for a private house is calculated individually for each client.
You can learn more about the factors that affect the cost of implementing a heating system in the section “The price of heating in a private house from Alter Air”.
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Летом установил систему тёплого пола в своём частном доме. Жду не дождусь зимних холодов, чтобы проверить работу оборудования. Ранее устанавливали бойлер, обслуживание на высшем уровне, уже как год работает без нареканий.
Если честно, даже не слышала раньше о фанкойлах, до чего дошел прогресс! Подскажите, они только в совокупности с тепловыми насосами работают?
Команда Альтер Эйр
Добрый день, Диана. Фанкойлы на отопление и охлаждение могут работать только в паре с тепловым насосом воздух-вода либо геотермальным. С котлами они будут работать исключительно на отопление.
Недавно я установил электрический котел в своем частном доме для отопления, и остался доволен результатами. Процесс установки прошел быстро и без проблем, и команда Alterair помогла мне в этом процессе. Котел сам по себе достаточно эффективен и смог сохранить весь мой дом в тепле и комфорте даже в самые холодные зимние месяцы. Элементы управления просты в использовании, и мне нравится, что я могу запрограммировать температуру для разного времени дня.