Design of a water supply system

Design of a water supply system

Plumbing is one of the main facilities in a residential building. Competent approach combines housing design with optimal engineering solutions. Therefore, our task is to create an individual project of a water supply system for your house or apartment.

Why a water supply project is needed

Water supply design is necessary to ensure the supply of water to a house or apartment, considering the main factors – the amount of consumption and the characteristics of sanitary ware (plumbing).

The whole process of water supply can be divided into two types – external and internal.

  • External water supply – these are communications through which water enters private houses and apartments. For apartment buildings, water is supplied from the central city pipeline. It is cleaned according to certain sanitary standards and supplied to the residential sector. For private houses, as a rule, water from an artificial well is used, which is supplied to a boiler station, and then is distributed throughout the house.

  • Internal water supply is the circulation of water within the building itself. The task of design in this case is to make sure that water moves through the pipes without problems in the required volume and complies with the design solutions of your home. It is also important to understand that the plumbing system is inextricably linked with the sewerage system.

Alter Air company designs internal water supply systems and implements effective engineering solutions for apartments and private houses.

Design features of a water supply system

To design an internal plumbing in an apartment or house, you need to consider several factors that will form the basis of engineering calculations. Water supply design considers:

  • the number of people living,

  • the number of “water supply points”,

  • plumbing development.

Depending on these parameters, it is necessary to calculate the features of the piping, as well as the amount of water that will be required for permanent use. For example, if there are two people in a family and one bathroom point, we understand that the shower will be used in turn. In this case, water consumption is calculated per person, which is approximately 30-40 l / min. However, if there are two bathrooms in which residents take a shower at the same time, the flow rate will be already 60-80 l / min. The difference is noticeable, and this load on the pipelines must be considered.

Design of a water supply system Internal water supply

A plumbing development is a clear list of what plumbing will be used in a particular apartment according to a design project. Why is it important? In plumbing, there are certain key points. For example, at what height should the bathroom sink faucet be located or where the hidden parts of the shower system (temperature controls, mode switches) will be installed.

It is necessary to clearly understand where exactly they are in the design project to correctly lay the pipelines at the construction stage. Only then you can install the visible parts of the plumbing and add new ones if necessary (for example, over time you will need to add another shower head for a child or an additional faucet under the bathroom sink).

It is significant to consider that the diameters of pipelines for plumbing are also selected based on water consumption. After all, for example, one shower head can consume 36 liters of water, and the other – 12 liters. If you choose the wrong piping system, a pressure drop situation can arise: when you take a shower in one bathroom, and the water pressure drops sharply when someone opens a tap in another area.

There are two types of piping:

  • Dead end, when pipes are laid to each "water supply point" in the house from one central pipe line. This is a budget design option, but less comfortable in everyday life than the second type of piping - radial.
  • Radial piping is a type of design in which water is supplied to each "water supply point" through separate pipes from the manifold. From the point of view of hydraulics and ease of use, such a system is more optimal - there are no pressure surges, each bathroom has an autonomous adjustable tap.

Plumbing design also includes the Neptune water leakage protection system. Special sensors identify the leak and automatically shut off the water supply. In the case of a dead-end wiring, the water will be blocked to all “wet zones”, and with a radial system, only the branch where the problem is detected will be blocked.

The installation teams of Alter Air implement the final project.

Construction norms and regulations requirements

​According to state construction norms and regulations, the most important thing is to combine the design project for plumbing with water consumption calculations. The plumbing is designed in such a way that it considers the number of people living and passes as much water as needed for a particular device and the built-in parts that they have (washbasins, bathtubs, shower systems).​

Water supply in a private house

Usually, water comes to private houses from wells. These wells are made by individual companies, which, because of maps of regional resources, determine the location of a high-quality water layer. By “quality layer” we mean water with a minimum number of impurities – minerals, salts, and iron. However, without technical water treatment, it cannot be used in the household segment.

Therefore, before implementing water distribution in a private house, it must first be cleaned and softened. The treatment system  is selected based on the results of water quality analysis. If it has an increased level of iron content, a water iron removal system is additionally installed. Thus, the technical purification of water from a well will consist of two parts: iron removal and softening. However, even after these stages, you cannot drink it.

Water supply in a private house Water supply in a private house

Water supply in an apartment

The water supply to the apartment is limited by the norms of city water supply. Water is supplied to a multistory building in a volume calculated for the number of apartments and the people living in them. The piping layout is standardized, so it is impossible to influence the water pressure and regulate the pressure.

As we said at the beginning, water enters the multistory buildings from the Kyiv city water supply system – either from wells or from the Dnipro River. Connection and design of the water supply system is not implemented without water treatment. The state is obliged to purify the extracted water and make it suitable for use. Minerals, salts, iron are removed from it, but the water is not made “soft”.

At the household level, we notice this in the form of scale in the kettle or when we have dry skin after a shower. Therefore, for apartments it is necessary to apply additional cleaning and softening, and only then distribute it through new pipes.

Stages of development

  • Calculation
  • Design
  • Selection of equipment
Collection of information

Collection of information

We receive main information from customers, on which the calculations and design features depend. It is important for us to understand how many people will use plumbing, what kind of plumbing will be installed in the house.



Based on the input information, we calculate the required amount of water for the house, consider the requirements of the plumbing project, and select a hydraulic system—dead-end or radial.



At this stage, we create a ready-made plan for installation work. The water supply project considers the requirements for water consumption and combines the design project of the house with optimal engineering solutions.

Selection of equipment

Selection of equipment

The selection of components for piping is carried out in parallel with the development of the project. These are inseparable processes that must be coordinated with each other.

Project cost


The price for designing water supply systems depends on the so-called “water supply points”, that is, the points of water outlets in the house. The price includes a water supply and sewerage project.


Apartment/private house
1 "water supply point" Water + sewerage
4 000 UAH

Our projects


  • Utility room
Duct air conditioner Daikin FBA 60

Кондиционеры Daikin FBA 60 – мощные сплит-системы канального типа, предназначенные для скрытого монтажа практически любого помещения.

HVU with heat recovery JABLOTRON FUTURA L

Highly efficient air handling unit for general ventilation in houses and apartments. Reuses the heat and moisture that are present in the room. Has a "native" VAV-system (variable air supply).


A complex of engineering systems in an apartment, Lipskaya street, Kyiv

  • Living room
  • Bathroom
  • Mini-boiler room - 1
  • Mini-boiler room - 2
TROX double slot inline diffuser

Double-slot diffusers from the TROX brand are designed for high-quality air distribution throughout the room. They combine visual aesthetics and high technical potential. Air currents are given in different directions, evenly scattering and avoiding any drafts. Outwardly, only laconic lines on the ceiling remain visible.

Duct air conditioner Daikin FDXM 35F

A low-pressure internal duct unit Daikin FDXM 35F is installed in the ceiling space of the bathroom - it works to cool the bedroom. It is accessed through hatches. The capacity of the air conditioner is enough to service rooms up to 35 m2, which is optimal for a given room. The lowering of the ceiling in a technical room was 300 mm.

Indirect heating boiler Drazice

Vertical indirect heating boiler Drazice OKSE 200 l is designed to provide apartment residents with hot water. The inner surface of the tank is covered with high-quality enamel without nickel, which ensures a long operation of the water heater, and there is also an anti-corrosion coating. The temperature inside can be kept between 7 and 77 ℃. The water heating indicator always shows the current temperature on the front of the tank. There is a fast heating function. This is an excellent solution for an apartment, allowing you not to depend on seasonal blackouts and other inconveniences.

Electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock

Electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock An electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock with a capacity of 6 kW and efficiency of up to 99% works for heating and hot water supply of the entire apartment. It has a wide range of temperature settings for both heating and hot water supply. There are frost protection and 2-level overheating protection. Equipped with eBus data transmission technology. With the help of a capillary thermostat, residents can smoothly regulate the heating temperature in the range from 25 to 85 ℃

Expansion tank Zilmet

The Zilmet expansion tank is designed to compensate extra pressure in the heating system. Works in conjunction with the Vaillant electric boiler above. The special inner lining of the tank prevents the growth of any bacteria, that is, the water does not acquire a metallic taste, does not stagnate or change its properties.

Refiner Ecowater - water softening and filtration system

A modern system for filtering and softening water: cleans water from all kinds of impurities and odors, neutralizes iron, making it soft, pleasant and safe for household appliances, water pipes and human use. The purified water is also suitable for drinking directly from the tap. The refiner does not require changing the carbon filters, and is controlled via WiFi - maximum automation and comfort!

A complex of engineering systems in an apartment, Lipskaya street, Kyiv

Video reviews

Hot water supply system in a private house - implementation options from Alter Air engineer
Hot water supply system in a private house - implementation options from Alter Air engineer
Implementation of heating and water supply systems in a private house 240 m2, Riviera Village
Implementation of heating and water supply systems in a private house 240 m2, Riviera Village
Overview of drawings and solutions for ventilation, air conditioning, water supply and sewerage in a house of 380 m²
Overview of drawings and solutions for ventilation, air conditioning, water supply and sewerage in a house of 380 m²
Heating and water supply for a private house (Zeleny Bor village)
Heating and water supply for a private house (Zeleny Bor village)


How to make a water supply project?

It is necessary to make a project for water supply at the construction stage, taking into account three factors: the number of people, the number of “water supply points” and the location of sanitary ware (plumbing). When installing a water supply system, there should be clear bindings for plumbing, in which there will be a combined design project and engineering solutions. For example, at what height the faucet and its handles should be, what distance from the sink and what distance from the cabinet or other furniture or how to install an asymmetric bathroom sink faucet. All these key parameters must be calculated in advance and to the smallest detail, so that in the future you do not have to remove tiles, pipes, or change plumbing.

Therefore, to make water supply for housing (a house or an apartment), two factors must be agreed – a competent design project (especially in terms of plumbing) and the choice of a company that will design the water supply to meet these requirements. In the process of developing a design project, you should pay attention to visual solutions for plumbing and the cost of materials that will suit you. In addition, when the project is ready, you can contact Alter Air to install the optimal plumbing system.

What is the difference between water supply for a cottage and an apartment?

The main difference is that it is impossible to change the water pressure in a water supply system in an apartment. City water supply provides a specific volume of water through a pipeline of a certain diameter, which cannot be changed. Therefore, when buying an apartment, you should always pay attention to what pipelines were installed, materials used and what is the real water pressure in the house.

In a private house, water comes from a well, and the pressure can be regulated by a submersible pump. The diameter of the pipeline is selected independently considering the necessary plumbing so that there are no problems in the future.

How much does plumbing cost?

The cost of the project should be calculated individually.

If we focus on the average cost of design (excluding installation and materials), we can talk about 15,000 UAH for an area of 100 m2. The price of the water supply project of a private house and an apartment is approximately the same.

To get advice on your project or calculate the cost of a water supply project, call us or leave a request on the website. Our managers will be able to answer your questions and find the best solutions for designing water supply system in your house or apartment.

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