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Heating with a heat pump

Heating with a heat pump
Design and approval of budget work
Warm and cool during all year
Strict adherence to the project plan
Warranty of completed installation works

Heat pumps are energy-efficient equipment that will ensure a comfortable indoor temperature at any time of the year. Since in winter, the heat pump will work to heat the building, and in summer to cool it. In addition, the equipment can heat water and provide residents with hot water for household and other needs all year round.

There are several types of heat pumps. They differ in the principle of operation of the system, heat source, etc. In addition, each type of equipment has special installation requirements, its advantages and disadvantages.

There are the following types of heat pumps:

  1. Air-to-air heat pump.
  2. Air-to-water heat pump.
  3. Ground source heat pump.

The main characteristic of efficiency relating to heat is the COP (Coefficient of Performance), which depends on the air temperature. The closer the air temperature is to 0 °C, the greater the COP.
When it comes to house cooling, the characteristic is EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio).


A heat pump for heating consists of two blocks: an indoor unit, which is a condenser, and an outdoor unit, which is an evaporator. For full-fledged operation, a Freon line through which the refrigerant moves connect the indoor and outdoor units.

  • The outdoor unit takes heat from the outdoor air and transfer it to Freon.

* Freon is a gas that has the ability to both transfer and absorb heat, as well as change its state of aggregation: from a gaseous state to a liquid, and vice versa. 

  • The indoor unit is directly responsible for the transfer of heat through the heat exchanger to such heat sources as underfloor heating, a radiator, an in-floor convector and a fan coil unit.​

Additional equipment for the fast generation of cold or heat for an air-to-water heat pump: fan coil units; radiators; in-floor convectors. Selection of radiators should be carried out no higher than +45 °C.

When purchasing a heat pump with its implementation using underfloor heating, radiators and in-floor convectors, you will not be able to perform the function of cooling the house for the summer period. For the efficient operation of the equipment, it is necessary to use a heat pump while considering all its functions: heating/cooling, heating water for hot water supply. Therefore, for the productive operation of the heat pump, it is necessary to replace the radiators with floor-standing fan coil units, which can work for both heating and cooling the room.

A heat pump for heating is a low-temperature equipment that works with underfloor heating. Thus, the lower the supply temperature, the more efficient the heat pump itself.

The temperature of the underfloor heating should not exceed +24-26 °C. Since when the temperature of the floor surface increases, the inertia of the uneven temperature difference will occur and the floor will become too hot, which will bring discomfort to the foot. If wooden floors are laid in your house, in-wall heating or the selection of the optimal type of floor covering will be an alternative in order to provide the high quality functioning of the heating system with a heat pump.

Let us consider the algorithm of operation of the air-to-water heat pump equipment.

  • The outdoor unit takes heat from the outdoor air and transfer it to Freon.
  • The refrigerant then enters the compressor, where it is compressed. This process involves an increase in pressure, as well as the temperature of Freon.
  • Thereafter, Freon changes from a liquid state into a gaseous state and moves to the indoor unit.
  • The refrigerant transfer its heat to the water.
  • Then the boiling process occurs (the transition of Freon from gas to liquid), and the refrigerant enters the outdoor unit.
  • The cycle repeats again and again.

The unit can work for both heating and cooling. Regarding cooling, the algorithm of work occurs in the reverse order. The indoor unit will become an evaporator, and the outdoor unit will become a condenser.


A heat pump for a house or apartment is gaining more and more popularity among customers. With the right calculation and choice of the type of unit: air-to-air, air-to-water or ground source heat pump, you will create a high level of comfort for your home.

This equipment is considered efficient and very economical for heating, in comparison with other heating units, such as gas and electric boilers.

stiebel eltron

A heat pump for heating has several advantages:

  • high-energy efficiency, which implies minimal costs for monthly maintenance of the house. When buying 1 kW of electricity, due to the high heat conversion effectiveness, the system allows you to get 3 kW of thermal energy.
  • the device does not depend on the availability of gas in the house. Since the supply of gas to the site is an expensive solution, you will save money using this equipment;
  • cost-efficient in operation with the minimum cost of maintaining cold, heat and hot water. Heating with a heat pump is much cheaper than using a gas or electric boiler.

For electricity consumers, special tariffs were set, which made the use of a heat pump even more profitable:

  • if there is no gas line to the house on the site, the state could provide 3000 kWh with a 50% discount - which was considered a very good offer;
  • at night, residents could use electricity, the price of which was reduced by another 50%. 
  • Today, only the night rate is used, in which there is a -50% discount from the original price.
  • universal, since the equipment can perform three functions: heating, cooling the room, water heating for hot water supply.
  • customizable mode. The automation of the heat pump will make it possible to maintain a comfortable temperature in the room, regardless of the time of year;
  • eco-friendly. There are no harmful emissions into the environment, which are considered dangerous for both nature and people.
heating pump


The heat pump can provide residents with hot water all year round. In order for the heat pump to work effectively for heating hot water, it must be taken into account that the water flow rate is calculated in the morning and in the evening, since this time is considered the maximum for water consumption.

Water supply to a private house is impossible without the installation of high-quality shutoff valves.

Each plumbing fixture has its characteristics, and to select a high-quality plumbing for a house or apartment, you must have a project that includes the location of plumbing fixtures, considering their technical characteristics.

The complete set of the heat pump provides for the installation of pumping groups for underfloor heating, with a mixing circuit for fan coil units as well. In addition, the following devices must be present in the system: a collector, shutoff valves, a storage tank and a DHW tank.


Initially, the heat pump was designed as a source of heat. In addition, the device is also a source of cold. Therefore, the heat pump will be able to solve the problem not only of heating the building, but also of its cooling in the summer.

To cool the room to the desired temperature, a heat pump is used with fan coil units. There is a wide range of devices that differ in the types of placement in buildings. They may be:


The temperature of the heat carrier for the fan coil unit, which works for cooling, is + 7 °C. Calculations in the selection of equipment are made for +9 °C.
The maximum heat carrier temperature for efficient operation of the air source heat pump in heating mode should be +40 °C.
The calculation of the floor part of the fan coil unit is made for + 40-45 °C, since the thermotechnical calculation is made for up to -7 °C, and then an auxiliary device, for example an electric boiler, is turned on.

A fan coil unit is considered an energy-efficient device that works both for cooling and heating rooms to a predetermined temperature. This equipment is considered the best option for installation in houses, and it will create comfortable living conditions, despite the time of year and the room area.

Floor-mounted fan coil units are considered the best purchase, since the equipment is installed along the double-glazed window. Such installation will provide an opportunity to avoid maximum cold/heat gain into the house.

For the living room, the best option is to install a ducted air conditioning system.


A heat pump for heating is a low-temperature equipment that works with underfloor heating. Thus, the lower the supply temperature, the more efficient the heat pump itself.

To achieve high efficiency at home, the following must be considered:

  1. having an energy efficient building design. This implies the installation of high-quality double-glazed windows, as well as the selection of optimal thermal insulation materials for walls and roofs;
  2. the design of a ventilation system with heat recovery. With a heat pump system, there should be no ventilation ducts, except for one: forced ventilation from the frying surface. Therefore, the heating system based on the heat pump and the ventilation system will become efficient, since the entire heat intake will be carried out through the heat exchanger;
  3. the installation of underfloor heating system, which operates at low temperatures.​


First of all, to choose the best option for a heat pump for heating, it is necessary to make a high-quality thermotechnical calculation of the building, which will make it clear how efficient the house is.

Only after that, Alter Air specialists will be able to recommend the type of heat pump that will match the requirements for your home and will be able to work effectively for the heating system.

The air source heat pump is suitable for cottages whose size is in the range of 100-200 square meters. Therefore, it is considered irrational to install this equipment for large areas, since the maximum power of an air source heat pump is 16 kW.

A ground source heat pump is installed in country houses which area exceeds 200 square meters.​

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Modern and efficient heat generating equipment



An air-to-air heat pump is considered a fairly common type of device, but is suitable for small buildings. It is necessary to consider that it will be impossible to completely heat/cool a country house or a cottage. The equipment is one of the budget types of heat pumps, since the prices for the purchase of the unit are considered quite affordable. A heat pump for heating is a system that consists of an indoor and outdoor unit.

The outdoor unit is responsible for taking heat from the cold outside air and heating the Freon. The indoor unit contributes to the supply of heat from Freon to the room air. There are several types of indoor units. They may be:

  1. wall-mounted;
  2. ducted;
  3. cassette;
  4. floor-mounted.

The heat pump can work both for heating and for cooling the room. An air-to-air heat pump for heating can sometimes bring discomfort to a person and lower the level of comfort in the house, since hot air is distributed unevenly around the perimeter of the room.

In addition, the equipment is widely used in countries where there are no severe frosts. Therefore, Alter Air specialists recommend using an air-to-water heat pump, since an air-to-air heat pump loses its effectiveness in the Ukrainian climate.

A ground-to-water heat pump is an efficient device that uses a source of low-grade energy – the ground. Purchasing a ground source heat pump is considered an expensive solution, since wells must be drilled for the equipment to function and ground probes must be used.

The vertical probe is a structure made of plastic pipes, in which the circulation of antifreeze liquid will constantly occur. This liquid facilitates the transfer of ground heat through the heat exchanger to the heat pump. The probe length can be distributed over several wells.

In addition, groundwater can be used as a productive source of heat for the operation of a heat pump. It is important to note that before drilling wells, it is necessary to analyze the soil. If on a plot of land with a small area there is no optimal amount of water reserves in depth, then purchasing a geothermal heat pump will be an irrational decision. Since the conversion factor will accordingly be low, which will lead to a decrease in the efficiency of the system.


The air-to-water heat pump is a universal and popular device that is in high demand for use in Ukraine. An air-to-water heat pump, like an air-to-air heat pump, has an indoor and outdoor unit. However, if we compare these heat pumps in terms of their functions, then, unlike air, water can work not only for heating/cooling the room, but also for heating water for hot water supply. 

Basically, for a full-fledged heating system, the equipment is used with underfloor heating, in-wall heating, and fan coil units.

Underfloor heating is considered as an additional device for the comfort in the house. The surface of the floor should be in the range of + 24-26 °C, since this is the optimal temperature for the foot, and it compensates for the heat loss of the building. With the use of underfloor heating, the heating system can work as a full-fledged source of heat, up to approximately -10 °C outside. 

However, it is unwise to consider underfloor heating as the only source of heat. With a sharp cold snap, the floor temperature will rise above + 26 °C. In addition, when the temperature rises outside, the warm floor will turn off. However, the heat source, like heated concrete, will continue to generate heat, which will lead to inertia of the floor.

If the atmospheric temperature is less than -10 °C, Alter Air recommends using a heat pump for heating with a combination of equipment such as a fan coil unit. With such a heat source, it is possible to regulate the heat supplied by the thermostat, or on the device itself.

It is important to remember that using a heat pump only for home heating is considered irrational. Since the outdoor and indoor units can provide the supply of both cold and heat to the room.

Frequently asked questions about heating with heat pumps

Can a heat pump be used to heat an apartment?

Yes, heating with a heat pump is great for an apartment. Two types of heat pumps can be used for the heating system: air-to-air and air-to-water.

The air-to-water heat pump is considered the more popular type of equipment, since it can work not only for space heating/cooling, but also for heating water for hot water supply.

Alter Air specialists will help you choose the best option for a heat pump for an apartment, taking into account your wishes, as well as competently make a thermotechnical calculation of the building.

Is it profitable to heat a house with a heat pump in Ukraine?

​Definitely yes. A heat pump is considered energy-efficient equipment, since when buying 1 kW of electricity, it will be able to give 3 kW of thermal energy. It should also be noted that the equipment can perform three functions, such as cooling, heating and heating water for hot water supply. Based on this, the use of a heat pump only for heating a house is considered irrational.

How does a heat pump system for a house heating work?

For optimal functioning of the heating system with heat pumps, it is necessary:

  • Install an underfloor heating system, which is an integral part of the house heating system, with a heat pump.
  • To avoid inertia, it is necessary to provide for the installation of fan coil units, which can quickly generate heat or cold, depending on the intended purpose: heating/cooling the room.

Our projects

Ventilation and air conditioning systems in a 3-room apartment, Kyiv, Honchara street

  • Ventilation
  • Air supply
  • Conditioning
Ventilation unit Jablotron Futura L

The Jablotron Futura L ventilation unit with heat and moisture recovery ensures high-quality air exchange at the apartment, and also reduces the load on the heating system in the cold season. Thanks to the Alfa wall controller and the MyJablotron mobile app it is easy to operate the unit.

Airflex flexible insulated duct

Flexible air ducts Airflex have a high degree of plasticity, which allows air to be supplied even to hard-to-reach areas. Moreover, they are covered with a layer of thermal insulation, which prevents heat loss and absorbs noise characteristics during the operation of the ventilation unit.

Galvanized steel duct with thermal insulation

Thanks to galvanized steel, the duct does not suffer corrosion and other damaging influences. Thus, the long-term operation of the climate systems is ensured.

Duct air conditioner Daikin FBA50A9 (indoor unit)

The Daikin duct air conditioner provides efficient room cooling. The FBA series has a rather thin body, which makes it easy to place in a ceiling space. The self-diagnosis function ensures a safe operation of the device and indicates problems if any occur.

Ventilation and air conditioning systems in a 3-room apartment, Kyiv, Honchara street

A complex of engineering systems in an apartment, Lipskaya street, Kyiv

  • Living room
  • Bathroom
  • Mini-boiler room - 1
  • Mini-boiler room - 2
TROX double slot inline diffuser

Double-slot diffusers from the TROX brand are designed for high-quality air distribution throughout the room. They combine visual aesthetics and high technical potential. Air currents are given in different directions, evenly scattering and avoiding any drafts. Outwardly, only laconic lines on the ceiling remain visible.

Duct air conditioner Daikin FDXM 35F

A low-pressure internal duct unit Daikin FDXM 35F is installed in the ceiling space of the bathroom - it works to cool the bedroom. It is accessed through hatches. The capacity of the air conditioner is enough to service rooms up to 35 m2, which is optimal for a given room. The lowering of the ceiling in a technical room was 300 mm.

Indirect heating boiler Drazice

Vertical indirect heating boiler Drazice OKSE 200 l is designed to provide apartment residents with hot water. The inner surface of the tank is covered with high-quality enamel without nickel, which ensures a long operation of the water heater, and there is also an anti-corrosion coating. The temperature inside can be kept between 7 and 77 ℃. The water heating indicator always shows the current temperature on the front of the tank. There is a fast heating function. This is an excellent solution for an apartment, allowing you not to depend on seasonal blackouts and other inconveniences.

Electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock

Electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock An electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock with a capacity of 6 kW and efficiency of up to 99% works for heating and hot water supply of the entire apartment. It has a wide range of temperature settings for both heating and hot water supply. There are frost protection and 2-level overheating protection. Equipped with eBus data transmission technology. With the help of a capillary thermostat, residents can smoothly regulate the heating temperature in the range from 25 to 85 ℃

Expansion tank Zilmet

The Zilmet expansion tank is designed to compensate extra pressure in the heating system. Works in conjunction with the Vaillant electric boiler above. The special inner lining of the tank prevents the growth of any bacteria, that is, the water does not acquire a metallic taste, does not stagnate or change its properties.

Refiner Ecowater - water softening and filtration system

A modern system for filtering and softening water: cleans water from all kinds of impurities and odors, neutralizes iron, making it soft, pleasant and safe for household appliances, water pipes and human use. The purified water is also suitable for drinking directly from the tap. The refiner does not require changing the carbon filters, and is controlled via WiFi - maximum automation and comfort!

A complex of engineering systems in an apartment, Lipskaya street, Kyiv

Video reviews

Air-to-water heat pump: operating principle, application features
Air-to-water heat pump: operating principle, application features
Heating, water treatment, air conditioning, ventilation and WSS in the house, Riviera Villas, Lebedevka
Heating, water treatment, air conditioning, ventilation and WSS in the house, Riviera Villas, Lebedevka
Heating and water supply for a private house (Zeleny Bor village)
Heating and water supply for a private house (Zeleny Bor village)
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We chose Alter Air to bring our cool engineering project to build our own home. Now the following systems are installed in the house: heating with a heat pump, underfloor heating, supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery, which allows you to keep moisture and easily breathe fresh clean air. The house maintains an excellent temperature of + 22 ° C - no stuffiness and dust. Everything is magical!

House owner

 I looked at several companies on the Internet and settled on the Alter Air company. After talking with their specialists, I realized that people are very well versed in their business. They sensibly explained how to implement home heating and ventilation correctly and with minimal cost. During my stay in a new house, I have already experienced the operation of these systems, and especially the ease of control. The temperature in the house is comfortable and kept at a given level. The ventilation works inaudibly, but noticeably - with the windows closed in the morning it breathes freely and easily, there is no dust. I am very pleased with the work of Alter Air and I will recommend you as a good performer who does quality work!

Peter Ivanovich
House owner
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We are happy to jointly conduct projects with organizations and self-employed specialists, recommend you to our clients and help with the outsourced engineering part. Additionally, we invite you to attend seminars of the "Engineering in Design" series, where we show by examples how to correctly implement engineering systems in the interiors of end customers.

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Testimonials and questions
  • 5 / 5


    Добрый день! Спасибо за статью, все очень понятно расписано. Такой вопрос: если у меня планируется дом +- 250 кв.м, то устанавливать водяной насос вообще не вариант? по статье понятно, что это не выгодно, но геотермальных нигде нет, непонятно где искать, а "воздух-вода" огромный выбор. Заранее спасибо!

  • Команда Альтер Эйр

    Добрый день, Артем! Рады, что были полезны. Для того, чтобы правильно подобрать оборудование, необходимо провести теплотехнический расчет, изучить конструктив Вашего дома. Исходя из практического опыта, на Вашу квадратуру можно будет установить тепловой насос воздух-вода.