Central ventilation: what it is, advantages and disadvantages of the system

Published 31 Mar 2022
Updated 29 Mar 2023
11 мин чтения
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  1. What a central ventilation system is
  2. Arrangement of the central ventilation system
    1. Supply units
    2. Supply and exhaust units
    3. Air ducts
  3. Advantages and disadvantages of centralized ventilation
    1. Advantages of the system
    2. Disadvantages of the system
  4. Features of central ventilation of industrial buildings
  5. Use of central ventilation in an apartment and a private house
  6. How to improve your central ventilation system
    1. Silencers
    2. Recuperators
  7. FAQ
    1. What is the difference between centralized and decentralized ventilation systems?
    2. How do ventilation and air conditioning combine?
    3. How is central ventilation calculated?

Today, houses have a high quality thermal insulation. Therefore, fresh air in the right amount (even when windows are opened) does not enter the room.

Central ventilation system in the interior
Central ventilation system in the interior

Therefore, such a system is an integral part of creating optimal conditions for a person.

In this article, you can find out what a central ventilation system is, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the system.

What a central ventilation system is

The system is a monobloc, which includes various connecting elements: a cooler, a drip collector, a recuperator, a humidifier and other elements of the system. These elements are designed to perform a specific task. Thanks to these devices, you can create optimal climatic conditions for different types of buildings or premises.

Arrangement of the central ventilation system

Система включает такие элементы:

  1. ventilation unit;
  2. air ducts;
  3. air distributor: diffuser, anemostat or grille;
  4. air intake devices: diffuser, anemostat, grille, kitchen umbrella;
  5. filters etc.

Supply units

Today, supply ventilation is seldom used in buildings, since the supply device is not energy efficient (there is no heat recovery). Since, in the cold season, it is necessary to heat the supply air, spending a large amount of electricity. In addition, the exhaust air will be thrown out into the street from the “dirty areas”, instead of using its heat to heat the supply air. Therefore, there is no need for central supply ventilation.

Supply and exhaust units

Air handling units are monobloc devices, where all the necessary elements for the operation of the system are assembled. They consist of:

In the domestic segment, the installation of an air handling unit with heat recovery is considered the best solution. More details can be found below in the section: “RECUPERATORS”.

Air ducts

Air ducts are indispensable elements of the ventilation system.

In the domestic segment, plastic flexible air ducts are used because they have the following advantages:

  1. create the desired bending angle, respectively, do not require additional installation of bends;
  2. reliable;
  3. durable;
  4. simple installation;
  5. have an affordable price, etc.
Air duct system
Air duct system

In the semi-industrial and industrial segment, it is necessary to use galvanized air ducts. In the domestic segment, galvanized air ducts are also used, but not in large quantities:

• an air duct that is used to take clean air from the outdoors;

• an air duct, which is used to discharge exhaust air into the outdoors.

In this case, a prerequisite is the coating of air ducts with heat-insulating material made of K-Flex rubber. Thermal insulation is necessary to prevent condensation on the outer wall of the duct.

Advantages and disadvantages of centralized ventilation

Advantages of the system

Considering the implementation of a supply and exhaust centralized ventilation system with recuperation, a humidifier, a cooling section and other necessary elements, a central ventilation system has the following advantages:

  1. high level of comfort for a person;
  2. maintaining optimal levels of carbon dioxide and air humidity;
  3. energy-efficient equipment, which in turn allows you to minimize the amount of energy spent on ventilation at home.
Supply and exhaust ventilation system
Supply and exhaust ventilation system

Disadvantages of the system

The disadvantages of such a system in an apartment or in a private house are as follows:

  • for installation, it is necessary to provide a separate area in the room, or the equipment can be located under the ceiling;
  • lowering of ceilings as air ducts take up space in the under ceiling space;
  • turning to non-qualified specialists who incorrectly design and calculate aerodynamics (arrangement and cross-section of air ducts), the noise characteristics will exceed optimal levels. In addition, the capacity of the unit may not be sufficient to supply the optimal amount of air.

Features of central ventilation of industrial buildings

Features of central ventilation of industrial buildings
Features of central ventilation of industrial buildings

Such a system will create a comfortable microclimate in the serviced premises. High-quality organization of air exchange in commercial buildings will provide customers and employees with several advantages:

  • optimal oxygen and humidity levels. Accordingly, staff and customers will be able to comfortably stay in the room;
  • absence of unpleasant smells;
  • when installing the cooling section, with the active sun exposure, people will not feel the negative effects of the heat;
  • in winter, the system will be able to supply warm air.

Use of central ventilation in an apartment and a private house

The main task of using central ventilation of a domestic type is the supply of fresh air and the intake of carbon dioxide.

Thanks to the correct distribution of air supply and air intake, your home will have an increased energy efficiency class by retaining heat and moisture in the building.

Thus, the air supply will be carried out in the “clean areas” (bedroom, children's room, living room), and the intake – in the “dirty areas” (bathroom, kitchen, wardrobe).

How to improve your central ventilation system

Firstly, to make the operation of central ventilation more efficient, it is necessary to have an old project for the implementation of the system, including the arrangement of air ducts. This is necessary so that engineers understand the amount of air that was previously used by the ventilation system.

In addition, it is necessary to study the information, according to the type of system: horizontal (under the ceiling) or vertical. Thus, experts will be able to determine the effectiveness of the ventilation system.

For example, after analyzing the aerodynamics of the ventilation system and determining that an inefficient device is installed in your house, and the equipment does not work at low temperatures in the winter, experts recommend:

  • replace the unit, considering the aerodynamic calculation and the cross-section of the air ducts. At the same time, there will be a minimal alteration of the connection of air ducts to the unit itself. In addition, Alter Air specialists will be able to choose the best equipment for the ventilation system, according to your wishes and budget.


Silencers are additional elements of the system that can reduce the noise in the system. Since, during the operation of the engine of the air handling unit noise occurs, which will be carried throughout the entire duct system and create discomfort for a person, the installation of silencers will help solve this problem. 


In the domestic segment, plate recuperators are most often used.

A plate recuperator is a heat exchanger that has plates that separate air flows. At the same time, the air flows do not mix. Thanks to the installed recuperator, the heat will not be thrown out into the street, but will be used to heat the supply air. Thus, with the help of the device, you can reduce the load on the heating system and electricity costs.

It should be noted that the performance of the recuperator depends on the temperature indicators inside and outside the room, as well as air humidity. Accordingly, the more humid the air in the building, the more efficient the work of the heat exchanger becomes. In addition, the device is able to work without heating elements up to -5°C, further temperature drop can lead to freezing of the recuperator. To prevent this problem, it is necessary to install a preheater that is able to warm the air to the optimal level.

To make the air temperature comfortable, you can install the post-heating (calibrates the exact temperature so that warm air of the chosen temperature is supplied from the diffuser, anemostat). For example, the air temperature after the heat exchanger can be +18 °C, and in order not to create discomfort for the residents, thanks to post-heating, you will get a comfortable temperature of +23°C.


What is the difference between centralized and decentralized ventilation systems?

The difference between a centralized system and a decentralized one is the organization of air exchange over the entire area of ​​​​the building using ductwork, and not locally for each room.

How do ventilation and air conditioning combine?

For domestic buildings, separate air ducts are used for the duct-type ventilation and air conditioning system.

The systems are combined in a plenum box (static chamber for connecting diffusers, grilles to air ducts). As a result, the air supply occurs through a linear diffuser, which is divided into two sections: one is responsible for the supply of cold air, the second - for clean air.

Air conditioning and ventilation in the industrial segment is carried out using a supply and exhaust unit with a cooling / heating section. The supply of cooled or warm air to the room occurs through one duct system.

How is central ventilation calculated?

Ventilation for industrial facilities is calculated according to the cooling / heating capacity, considering the number of people who are in the building. In the domestic segment, the calculation is carried out according to air exchange:

  • by multiplicity;
  • by the number of people;
  • by CO2 level.


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  • 5 / 5


    Очень понравилась статья - все расписано четко, обширно и понятно. Удивило, что здесь предлагается вариант даже усовершенствования центральной системы вентиляции.

  • 5 / 5


    А как правильно выбрать установку для вентиляции в офис 90 квадратов.

  • Альтер Эйр

    Площадь помещения не достаточно для общей информации, которая необходима для выбора подходящего оборудования. Прозвоните нашим консультантам и они ответят на все ваши вопросы более подробно.

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