- 💨 Smart ventilation system
In the modern world, the terms “intelligent” or “smart” are used to describe various technologies, sometimes without any outstanding properties. To understand what smart ventilation is, let's talk about how the ventilation system is organized in a living space.
In the domestic segment, according to Construction Norms & Regulations, the calculation of ventilation is carried out according to two standards: by air exchange rate and by the number of people in the room.
For example, we select a ventilation unit, taking into account Construction Norms & Regulations indicator of 36 cubic meters of air per person. In Ukraine, the capacity of carbon dioxide outside is approximately 400-450 ppm, when 40 cubic meters are supplied per person, the content of carbon dioxide inside the room will be at the level of 900 ppm.
Cleaner air enters the room and mixes with air with a higher carbon dioxide content. In a traditional ventilation system, there is no equipment that signals that air should be supplied to some rooms and not to others. Everything is predetermined by technical calculation during the design, and current conditions are not taken into account.
However, the reality is different: in a room with people, the level of carbon dioxide rises, but not in an empty room, and in a room without people, the system does not need to operate at higher speeds.
It is a smart ventilation system that is designed to solve this problem.
Smart ventilation clearly recognizes where a person is by detecting higher levels of carbon dioxide. Thereafter, air masses are removed in such an area.
To automate the ventilation system, a CO2 sensor is used, as well as a so-called VAV-valve.
The Alter Air company uses the smart ventilation of the Czech brand Jablotron as the most functional version of the ventilation system for the home.
To describe the advantages of this system, let's start from the opposite – let's talk about the disadvantages of conventional ventilation.
To achieve a carbon dioxide content in the room of about 600 ppm, you need to supply 80 cubic meters of clean air per person. Such a load doubles the requirement for standard power (36 cubic meters) for the unit and air ducts.
The engine is always running at high speed, although some rooms may not need oxygen.
This leads to rapid wear of the elements of the ventilation and an air conditioning system, increased use of energy resources, and overall energy inefficiency.
Smart ventilation allows you to:
reduce the load on the equipment, providing it with a longer service life;
save money by reducing power consumption;
ALWAYS supply the optimal amount of air for comfort;
do not waste time on “setting up” – the system independently makes the optimal decision.
So, we found out that the automatic ventilation of a private house can recognize the capacity of carbon dioxide in the room and control its threshold “from and to” using a CO2 sensor and a VAV valve.
Such ventilation is a mathematical control process.
“Brains” control the engine of the supply system and exhaust ventilation with recuperation. Depending on the readings of the CO2 sensor, the power of the engine and the level of opening of the valves are regulated.
The system sets all areas from 600 to 800 ppm.
When family members are in the bedrooms, the CO2 intake in other areas is zero. In a conventional ventilation system, air will be supplied to all areas according to Construction Norms & Regulations.
A smart ventilation system detects the presence of a person by changing the level of carbon dioxide. If the amount of CO2 does not change, it runs at minimum speed.
How can you “manage” the air that is supplied to the living room while family members are in the bedrooms?
The dampers in the living room are closed, air is supplied to areas where there are critical or non-critical values.
If the value is critical, the valve opens 100% to reach the norm faster, if it is non-critical, it opens a little, getting the amount of air that is enough to maintain the parameters.
In such a system, it is possible to install a ventilation unit with a capacity of not 600, but 350 cubic meters – and it will be enough. Reducing the size and noise characteristics is a significant plus for residential building.
In the domestic segment, Jablotron smart ventilation is used. How does it work?
The ventilation system always operates at minimum speed. For the M series model, it is 80 cubes, for the L series — 110 cubes.
Let's imagine that a model L is installed in the house and there are 10 valves in different areas. The system supplies air to “clean” areas (living rooms), takes it from “dirty” ones (bathrooms, wardrobes, kitchens).
VAV valves are controlled by the “clean” area with CO2 sensors and by the “dirty” areas by the boost-key.
Suppose there are four people (two adults and two children) living in a house. If there is no one in the house, the system distributes 110 cubic meters of air evenly throughout the rooms (for 10 valves – 11 cubic meters each).
When a family member returns home and goes into a room, CO2 levels begin to rise in it.
The sensor is located at the farthest point from the doors. Air from two valves opposite the doors fills the space in the room. The sensor and the system see that the trend in the amount of carbon dioxide in the room is growing. In the neighboring rooms, the dampers close, the air is redirected to the nursery. Instead of 22 cubic meters, which were supplied earlier (from two dampers of 11 cubic meters), the volume can increase to 40 and further up to 80 cubic meters.
The remaining 70 cubes are evenly distributed across the other eight valves.
The system will increase the volume of air until the trend is fixed, and then can reduce it - to a value that is enough to maintain the set parameters.
Let’s suppose that mom and dad are returning home, and the family with the child gather in the living room, where there are four valves. In the nursery, the trend quickly begins to fall, as there is less carbon dioxide after the child moved to the other room. The damper closes to the minimum. The amount of CO2 in the living room is growing.
110 cubes is not enough to cover the needs of three people. The system smoothly raises the airflow through the engine, integrating more air into the living room valves. In neighboring rooms, the valves close slightly.
When people go from the living room to the bedrooms, the system stops the flow to the living room and distributes it among the rooms: 80 cubes to the nursery, for parents – about 120.
At the same time, it constantly tries to work at a power of no more than 50%.
“Dirty” areas have air intake valves.
The person living in the house enters the bathroom and presses the switch, behind which the boost-key is built-in. The system understands that the valve must take a maximum of 100 cubic meters from the room to ensure comfort.
The value of 100 cubic meters is programmable, that is, it is predetermined that such an amount of air can pass through the valve.
Currently, when the system starts to work with such a load, the remaining valves will temporarily close. After turning off and working out by timer, the valves will open and balance.
There are two ways to organize air exchange for the kitchen in the Jablotron smart ventilation system.
The first is the installation of a linear diffuser near the hob. The kitchen hood takes part of the air with smoke and odors into the ventilation duct, and everything that it does not capture is drawn out by a linear diffuser.
A pressure switch is introduced into the hood – a sensor that detects changes in air movement in the duct. It gives the boost-button protocol signal. In the kitchen protocol, the unit neglects working at minimum speed and raises the airflow to the maximum, closes the bathrooms hermetically, opens all valves near the hob, and supplies air to the rooms, since active air exchange is necessary so that the smell from the frying surface does not spread.
The second option is the kitchen hood made by Faber and Jablotron. Four valves are connected to the Faber kitchen hood of various modifications. A boost-key is introduced into the kitchen hood, after pressing it, the system begins to actively draw out dirty air.
Note that Faber does not recommend cylindrical kitchen hoods, since a volume of 600 mm means a weak intake of polluted air masses. For a comfortable space, it is important to block the sources completely.
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Alter Air consistently recommends the Jablotron manufacturer for ventilation, as it has all the necessary software.
With the help of applications, the user and the installer can manage the system and obtain complete information about its operation.
The client installs an application with an admin panel on an Android or IOS gadget. It is also possible to connect via ModBus to the “smart home” system.
It has access to indicators on several levels: the functioning of the house in terms of system performance, the operation of the ventilation unit, detailed reports – how much air is supplied per second, CO2 level, air supply temperature, recuperator efficiency, etc
In the domestic segment, the manufacturer Jablotron offers automation of ventilation and air conditioning systems. Other companies working through the VAV system produce equipment designed for the semi-industrial and industrial segments. It is impossible to control 400 cubic meters of air with such valves - we are talking about much larger volumes.
The Jablotron Futura M and Futura L heat recovery air-handling units have variable air supply valves. Both models, in addition to controlled supply of fresh air and removal of exhaust air, provide air purification, heat and moisture recovery, cool air supply through by-pass, and air heating.
At the end of 2022, Jablotron and NIBE will present a collaboration. Users will have access to the “smart home” system, which includes air-to-water heat pumps, a cool breeze system (adiabatic cooling of air supplied to the room from the street during the off-season), ventilation with VAV valves, and an alarm system. All of this can be configured and managed from a single application.
Jablotron smart ventilation uses unique enthalpy recuperators. They function without pre- and post-heating, with latent cold and heat in the condensate that forms in the recuperator itself. Such a recuperator does not freeze over.
Almost all manufacturers of smart ventilation systems use fans of the EBM-PAPST brand (Germany).
The ventilation system uses three sensors: a CO2 sensor, a temperature sensor, and a boost-button.
VAV valves (variable airflow valves) play the leading role in the smart ventilation system.
To implement the system, Vents flexi air ducts with a diameter of 90 mm are used. All valves in such air ducts are connected by latches.
The implementation of the ventilation system takes place according to the traditional algorithm:
There are two points to note:
Euro hatches are required for VAV valves. The valves are installed in technical rooms, in the area under the ceiling, since this is electronics – you need access to it.
Maintenance service of smart ventilation is needed less frequently than traditional ventilation because it operates at minimum speed. For example, filters (installed F7 on the supply and intake, and optionally carbon) are changed less often by 2.5-3 times.
For a house up to 300 sq.m. the cost is 400-600 thousand UAH, depending on the configuration.
Кондиционеры Daikin FBA 60 – мощные сплит-системы канального типа, предназначенные для скрытого монтажа практически любого помещения.
Highly efficient air handling unit for general ventilation in houses and apartments. Reuses the heat and moisture that are present in the room. Has a "native" VAV-system (variable air supply).
The Jablotron Futura L ventilation unit with heat and moisture recovery ensures high-quality air exchange at the apartment, and also reduces the load on the heating system in the cold season. Thanks to the Alfa wall controller and the MyJablotron mobile app it is easy to operate the unit.
Flexible air ducts Airflex have a high degree of plasticity, which allows air to be supplied even to hard-to-reach areas. Moreover, they are covered with a layer of thermal insulation, which prevents heat loss and absorbs noise characteristics during the operation of the ventilation unit.
Thanks to galvanized steel, the duct does not suffer corrosion and other damaging influences. Thus, the long-term operation of the climate systems is ensured.
The Daikin duct air conditioner provides efficient room cooling. The FBA series has a rather thin body, which makes it easy to place in a ceiling space. The self-diagnosis function ensures a safe operation of the device and indicates problems if any occur.
Double-slot diffusers from the TROX brand are designed for high-quality air distribution throughout the room. They combine visual aesthetics and high technical potential. Air currents are given in different directions, evenly scattering and avoiding any drafts. Outwardly, only laconic lines on the ceiling remain visible.
A low-pressure internal duct unit Daikin FDXM 35F is installed in the ceiling space of the bathroom - it works to cool the bedroom. It is accessed through hatches. The capacity of the air conditioner is enough to service rooms up to 35 m2, which is optimal for a given room. The lowering of the ceiling in a technical room was 300 mm.
Vertical indirect heating boiler Drazice OKSE 200 l is designed to provide apartment residents with hot water. The inner surface of the tank is covered with high-quality enamel without nickel, which ensures a long operation of the water heater, and there is also an anti-corrosion coating. The temperature inside can be kept between 7 and 77 ℃. The water heating indicator always shows the current temperature on the front of the tank. There is a fast heating function. This is an excellent solution for an apartment, allowing you not to depend on seasonal blackouts and other inconveniences.
Electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock An electric boiler Vaillant Ecoblock with a capacity of 6 kW and efficiency of up to 99% works for heating and hot water supply of the entire apartment. It has a wide range of temperature settings for both heating and hot water supply. There are frost protection and 2-level overheating protection. Equipped with eBus data transmission technology. With the help of a capillary thermostat, residents can smoothly regulate the heating temperature in the range from 25 to 85 ℃
The Zilmet expansion tank is designed to compensate extra pressure in the heating system. Works in conjunction with the Vaillant electric boiler above. The special inner lining of the tank prevents the growth of any bacteria, that is, the water does not acquire a metallic taste, does not stagnate or change its properties.
A modern system for filtering and softening water: cleans water from all kinds of impurities and odors, neutralizes iron, making it soft, pleasant and safe for household appliances, water pipes and human use. The purified water is also suitable for drinking directly from the tap. The refiner does not require changing the carbon filters, and is controlled via WiFi - maximum automation and comfort!
Smart ventilation provides increased comfort, efficient energy use and greater efficiency with less unit power.
Experimenting with ventilation on your own is something Alter Air will never recommend. Find good professionals – competent designers and installers. Then you do not have to pay twice.
Here are some obvious benefits of such a system:
you can install equipment of lower power for a regulatory calculation, but it will meet your needs
filters will have to be changed three times less often
air quality will be twice as good
the ventilation unit always runs at minimum speed, which saves energy
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